The obvious solution is to machine an adapter that uses the standard tubing dimensions that Moonlite Telescope's truss tube blocks expect (1" OD, .050" wall), and adapts to the size of carbon fiber composite tube that I need to get the required lightness and stiffness. Going with a .625" OD, .553" ID tube gives me a maximum sag for a single truss of .0037" max, or about .0024" for all three working together (plus whatever stiffness is contributed by the top and bottom tubes).
The adapters will look like this:
It starts with a piece of 1" diameter aluminum rod. I'll bore one end that it has the dimensions for the truss tube blocks. The other end will be a .63" ID hole. I can't just screw the set screw to the carbon fiber composite tube, because it will either crack or puncture it. Instead, there needs to be something to support the tube on the other side.
I will drill a 0.25" hole through the 1" piece of aluminum. The green piece on the drawing above is a 0.55" diameter aluminum cylinder, which will be drilled and tapped 1/4"-20. Because the holes in both cases are carefully centered, the center cylinder will provide a space that will accept the carbon fiber composite tube. The set screw thus locks the tube into the adapter, without putting any great stress on the tube itself.
At the same time, it's only two inches long, so it won't add much weight.
UPDATE: A commenter suggests epoxy to bind the tube to the 0.63" hole. That has the advantage that it eliminates the need to drill and tap a hole for the set screw, and makes the interior cylinder unnecessary. The more I think about this, the more I like it. I might even simplify this by starting from a .625" ID, 1" OD piece of aluminum tubing. Then all I have to do is bore one end out to .90" ID, and the other to .63" ID.